A World with Watson

An year back I wrote my first blog about Watson. I have been closely following what’s happening with Watson. Here are some facts on Watson and what user’s of Watson are speaking about it.

 

Quick Facts About Watson:

  • By the end of this year, Watson will touch one billion people in some way
  • Watson can “see,” able to describe the contents of an image. For example, Watson can identify melanoma from skin lesion images with 95 percent accuracy, according to research with Memorial Sloan Kettering.
  • Watson can “hear,” understanding speech including Japanese, Mandarin, Spanish, Portuguese, among others.
  • Watson can “read” 9 languages.
  • Watson can “feel” impulses from sensors in elevators, buildings, autos and even ball bearings.
  • Watson has been trained on 8 types of cancers, with plans to add 6 more this year.
  • Beyond oncology, Watson is in use by nearly half of the top 25 life sciences companies, major manufacturers for IoT applications, retail and financial services firms, and partners like GM, H&R Block and SalesForce.com.
  • At IBM, there are more than 1,000 researchers focused solely on artificial intelligence

But perhaps more important than what Watson can do, it is what people, businesses and institutions of all sizes are doing with Watson. See what some IBM Watson users are saying.
Watson
What IBM and Watson has been at the leading edge of is providing enterprise grade, commercially ready cognitive services, fully integrated with a top notch cloud and many other services from analytics to support and sales & marketing.”  — André M. König, Co-Founder @ Opentopic Inc. This quote was included in Mr. König’s article “Watson is a Joke?” featured on LinkedIn.

All of us involved in training Watson… are absolutely convinced that this technology will become an indispensable part of a doctor’s armamentarium to care for patients.” — Mark G. Kris, MD, lead physician of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering-IBM Watson collaboration. Dr. Kris’s quote was featured in a June 25, 2017 article in the American Society of Clinical Oncology entitled “How Watson for Oncology is Advancing Personalized Patient Care.”

But, the probably more exciting part about it is in 30 percent of patients Watson found something new. And so that’s 300-plus people where Watson identified a treatment that a well-meaning, hard-working group of physicians hadn’t found.” Dr. Norman “Ned” Sharpless, director of the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and recent presidential appointee as director of the National Cancer Institute.
Dr. Sharpless’ made these comments in a “60 Minutes” segment that aired on October 2016 and again on June 25, 2017. The segment can be viewed here.

30 minutes is down to 8 minutes to screen a patient…That coordinator can now spend that valuable time gained … in educating the patient on why it’s important for her to be in that clinical trial, helping to break down other barriers.”  Dr. Tufia Haddad, MD, Breast Medical Oncologist, Mayo Clinic, made these comments during an AI in Healthcare panel during HIMSS 2017, reported here.

We could have individually looked at the 1,500 proteins and genes but it would have taken us much longer to do so.  IBM Watson for Drug Discovery, with its robust knowledge base, was able to rapidly give us new and novel information we would not otherwise have had.” – Robert Bowser, PhD, director of the Gregory W. Fulton ALS Research Center at Barrow Neurological Institute and one of the nation’s leading ALS researchers. Quote is from a press release announcing the recent Society for Neuroscience study findings.

[With Watson], we’re seeing some really tremendous efficiencies gained in the drilling business – [including] an 80 percent reduction in the geoscience research time we need to actually design our wells. That means geoscience searchers are doing geoscience not looking out for more data.” -Peter Coleman, CEO and Managing Director for Woodside [source:  Investor Briefing, March 7, 2017]

[Watson services] was a wake-up call for us – that cognitive solutions are real and powerful. We felt that IBM had, by far, the largest lead in terms of where cognitive was going and that the Watson team would be in the best position to help our business users.” -Ryan Bartley, Head of Applied Innovation at Staples [source: IBM Watson blog, February 10, 2017]

It’s not man versus machine—they very much work hand and hand. Our analysts continue to play a critical role in evaluating a cyber security incident, while Watson for Cyber Security enforces their decisions and validates what they are sharing with the customer at risk. It enables security analysts to deliver faster and more accurate details on a breach, so we may better protect our customers.” – Ronan Murphy, CEO, Smarttech (source: Press Release, May 11, 2017)

Watson Analytics

Need for Watson Analytics
If an organization is good at analyzing data and extracting relevant insights from it then decision makers can make more informed and thus more optimal decisions. But the decision makers are forced to make decisions with incomplete information. The reason?  Decisions makers/ Citizen Analysts, for the most part, tend to be mainly consumers of analytics and they rely on more skilled resources (Like Data Engineer, Data Scientist, Application developer) in the organization to provide the data driven answers to their questions. Moreover the answer to one question is just the start of another. Think of a detective interrogating a suspect. The consumer/builder model is hardly conducive to the iterative nature of data analysis. Therefore, the time it takes for these answers to be delivered to the decision makers is far from optimal – and many questions go unanswered every day.

watsonlogoWatson Analytics
So a logical solution is to provide an easier to use analytics offerings. Watson Analytics provides that value add so that more people will be able to leverage data to drive better decision making using analytics.

When we think of Watson, we think about Cognitive. And when we think about Analytics, we think  about traditional analytics (querying, dashboarding), along with some more advanced analytic capabilities (data mining, and social media analytics). So Watson Analytics is a Cloud based offering which can make analytics a child’s play even for a non-skilled user.

Watson Analytics helps users understand their data in a guided way using a natural language interface to ask a series of business questions. Example, a user can ask “What is the trend of revenue over years?” and get a visualization in response. So, Instead of having to first choose a visualization and working backwards to try answer the business question, Watson Analytics allows you to describe your intent in natural language, and it chooses the best visualization for you. Even better, Watson Analytics gives you some initial set of questions which you can keep refining.

Watson Analytics for Social Media
Watson Analytics can work on Social Media data to take the pulse of an audience by spotting trends and identifying new insights and relationships across multiple social channels allowing greater visibility into a given topic or market. It combines structured and unstructured self-service analysis to enrich your social media analytics experience for exceptionally insightful discoveries. All on the cloud!

Summary of Steps:
Watson Analytics does the following to provide insights hidden in your Big data. Mouse-over the below images to get the details of the steps.

  • Import data from a robust set of data source (on Cloud and on premise) options, with the option to prepare and cleanse via IBM Bluemix Data Connect.
  • Answering What: Identifying issues, early problem detection, finding anomalies or exceptions, challenging conventional wisdom or the status quo.
  • Understanding or explaining outcomes, Why something happened.
  • Dashboarding to share results

Cognitive 7 – Challenging Cyber-Criminals

It’s estimated that cyber-crime will cost the global economy more than $2 trillion by 2019—and could be the greatest threat to every company in the world! Since I have your attention now, lets spend some more time detailing this statement that I made.

cybercrimeOrganized criminals, hacktivists, governments and adversaries are compelled by financial gain, politics and notoriety to attack organizations’ most valuable assets. Their operations are well funded and business-like. However, cybersecurity solutions of the past often fail to protect against increasingly sophisticated attack methods. The result is more severe security breaches happening more frequently (50% increase in past year alone) which are geared towards stealing higher-value records such as health-related personally identifiable information (PII) and other highly sensitive data.

3 Top Security concerns of companies:

  • Optimizing their security program to unite security silos, reduce complexity and lower costs as opposed to buying dozens of products from dozens of vendors to nail down all kind of security risks.
  • Stopping advanced threats to prevent, detect and respond to known and unknown threats throughout the entire attack lifecycle. Currently on average a company takes 201 days to identify a data breach!
  • Safeguarding critical assets across users, applications, sensitive data and infrastructure, in the cloud, on mobile or on-premise. Note more than 55 percent of all attacks are carried out by malicious insiders or inadvertent actors

Protecting against security threats:

Cybersecurity  can be compared to an immune system. When you get a cold or virus, the immune system understands the virus and sends data through your central nervous system (security intelligence) to create white blood cells and antibodies to gather info, prioritize and take action. This is what’s called the “immune response.” Faced with an attack—whether to a server, mobile device, application, etc.—an effective security solution should detect that breach and work to stop it, similar to how an immune system would function.

Continuing with our comparison to fighting infection, think about how global health organizations share data to stop a pandemic. For cybersecurity, a partner ecosystem serves that same purpose. When organizations collaborate and share their data on new or changing threats, the other organizations can more quickly assess their own vulnerability based on that data and put appropriate protections in place.

Why Cognitive security?

Because even with major advances in technology, the tools available to today’s security analysts aren’t enough to keep up with the number of security events they see every day. There’s a tremendous amount of security knowledge created for human consumption, yet most of it is untapped. 80% of all data on the internet, including blogs, articles, videos, reports, alerts and other information cannot be processed by traditional security tools, and it’s this unstructured data which often proves most valuable in detecting and stopping threats before they cause harm.

Cognitive computing has the ability to tap into and make sense of all of the security data that has previously been dark. A cognitive systems continues to observe events and behaviors—distinguishing the good from the bad—the ability to use integrated defenses to block new threats gets stronger and stronger. By helping to make security analysts more effective and accelerating the response to emerging threats, cognitive security will help to address the current security skills gap, bringing heightened levels of confidence and risk control.

Cognitive 6 – Meet The Watson Family

Watson is a technology that can learn, compare, analyze, reason, justify and process human language, so there must be countless ways to create benefit from it. Watson doesn’t replace people, but acts as a trusted advisor that can quickly read and understand massive amounts of information and provide suggestions or warnings to help people make the best decisions. In fact, Watson is already interacting with 1 billion people in 8 languages. Let us look at some specific Watson offerings that are helping clients.

Some specific Watson offerings helping clients

Watson Knowledge Studio
Enables subject matter experts and developers to teach Watson the linguistic nuances of industries and knowledge domains—without writing a single line of code. Click here to get a series of videos on Watson Knowledge Studio. It can help an auto manufacturer to proactively identify safety defects using traffic incident reports as shown below.
knowledgeexplorer
Watson Explorer
Accesses and analyzes structured and unstructured content—presenting data, analytics and cognitive insights in a single view, giving users the information they’re looking for while uncovering trends, patterns and relationships.

Watson Company Analyzer
Watson Company Analyzer applies cognitive technology to enhance understanding of business accounts – creating holistic company profiles. It does this by collecting, filtering and analyzing structured and unstructured information. By building these comprehensive company profiles enables companies to better understand customers and accelerate opportunities.

Watson Engagement Advisor
Interacts with customers, listens to questions and offers solutions, learning with every human interaction and growing its collection of knowledge—quickly adapting to the way people think.

 Watson Health Solutions
From advancing personal training to cancer treatment, from clinical trial matching to insulin pumps that think, Watson Health is transforming the way organizations deliver health and wellness. Imagine you’re a doctor treating cancer patients. It’s impossible for you to keep up with the vast amount of new data from medical journals, clinical trials, academic research and other sources that would help you provide the best treatment recommendations. That’s where Watson comes in. It can ingest all of this data and find potential connections or correlations that you wouldn’t find on your own—providing you the insight to make the best decisions about treatment options for the specific type of cancer your patient has.

To discover more about Watson through education modules and courseware, visit IBM Watson Academy.

Cognitive 5 – IBM Watson as a cloud service

After its success on Jeopardy!, IBM research worked to make this technology open for public use. Later, IBM established a separate business unit for Watson called The Watson Group and a dedicated workforce to continuously improve Watson’s capabilities. The aim is to bring the power of Watson and cognitive computing to market using cloud delivery models. With those efforts, some of the Watson capabilities are now available on IBM Bluemix. These are available “as a service,” meaning you can use them in your own applications and services, embed them anywhere using Watson APIs and enhance your application capabilities dramatically. This also means that soon you might be able to do all the magic behind the Jeopardy! challenge within your application, with just a couple of clicks!

We can open the Bluemix dashboard and start using these services. Here they are:

watsonapis

AlchemyAPI
Using AlchemyAPI, developers can perform tasks such as extracting the people, places, companies, and other entities mentioned in any publicly-accessible webpage, posted HTML/text document, or a predefined corpus of news articles.

Conversation:
Using Conversation APIs, you can add a natural language interface to your application to automate interactions with your end users. Common applications include virtual agents and chat bots that can integrate and communicate on any channel or device.

Document conversion
The IBM Watson Document conversion service converts a single HTML, PDF, or Microsoft Word™ document into a normalized HTML, plain text, or a set of JSON-formatted Answer units that can be used with other Watson services.

Language Translation:
It dynamically translate news, patents, or conversational documents and can instantly publish content in multiple languages. As a result French-speaking staff can be empowered to instantly send emails in English.

Watson Personality Insights:
Personality Insights derives insights from transactional and social media data to identify psychological traits which determine purchase decisions, intent and behavioral traits; This can be utilized to improve conversion rates.

Retrieve and Rank service
Watson Retrieve and Rank service helps users find the most relevant information for their query by using a combination of search and machine learning algorithms to detect “signals” in the data. The Retrieve and Rank Service can be applied to a number of information retrieval scenarios. For example, an experienced technician who is going onsite and requires help troubleshooting a problem can use this.

The Text to Speech and Speech to Text
Text to Speech service processes text and natural language to generate synthesized audio output complete with appropriate cadence and intonation (multi language support exists). The Speech to Text service converts the human voice into the written word.

Tone Analyzer
This API leverages cognitive linguistic analysis to identify a variety of tones at both the sentence and document level. It detects three types of tones, including emotion (anger, disgust, fear, joy and sadness), social propensities (openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and emotional range), and language styles (analytical, confident and tentative) from text. This insight can then used to refine and improve communications.

Tradeoff Analytics
This API helps people make better choices while taking into account multiple, often conflicting, goals that matter when making that choice. The service can be used to help make complex decisions like what mortgage to take, and also for helping with more everyday ones like which laptop to purchase.

Using these Watson APIs now you can build cognitive apps that help enhance, scale, and accelerate human expertise. In our next blog, we will explore some of these cognitive apps. Stay tuned.

Cognitive 1 – Need for Cognitive Systems

watsonThere is a lot of buzz about Cognitive Computing. I plan to write a series of blogs on it as cognition is framing the future of the digital economy. In this blog, lets explore the need of Cognitive technology.

In today’s world  we see the business models converge across categories and industries. The Ubers’ and Airbnbs’ have shifted consumer behavior very rapidly threatening the existence of very strong, established players in the market. This new dynamic was result of their on demand model powered through the immediacy of technology. Now, with emergence of such new business models, organizations can no longer continue to see their competitive set from within industry; they need to be structured to look beyond their traditional boundaries. As brands, businesses and organizations shift to become lifestyle centric, competition can come from anywhere.  Piotr Ruszowski, chief marketing officer, Mondial Assistance, Poland  says,  “The biggest threat is new competitors that aren’t yet classified as competitors.”

To win in this dynamic age, there is a need for organizations to become all knowing. This means getting insights from all data including the ‘dark’ data that sits outside of the firewall of the organization. It includes unstructured information – books, emails, tweets, journals, blogs, images, sound and videos.  The challenge here is that this pool of dark matter is only going to get bigger – the statistic here that “By the year 2020, about 1.7 MB of new information will be created every second, for every human being on the planet” represents the magnitude of how much we really mean when we say big.

As you go outside your firewall to the data that’s coming, it is increasingly unstructured. Traditional systems are programmed and so are not structured to be able to glean insight from dark data. Therefore organizations need to look to cognitive systems that have the capability to be able to make sense of it How? We will explore later, but the key difference here is structured data will tell you that your sales are down for instance, but it’s the unstructured data that can tell you why?

With Cognition, Business technologies that automate and detect can now also advise and enhance human expertise, powering organizations to be able to make richer, more data driven decisions.

Summary:
Here are the benefits of a cognitive business:

  • Puts to work all forms of data, whether structured or unstructured
  • Facilitates evidence-based, confidence-weighted decisions.
  • Discovers new insights and patterns in new kinds of data.
  • Learns and adapts with use, actions, outcomes and new data to stay current.
  • Navigates natural language to allow conversational-style interaction, enhancing adoption and use

The success of cognitive computing will not be measured by Turing tests or a computer’s ability to mimic humans. It will be measured in more practical ways, like return on investment, new market opportunities, diseases cured and lives saved. How cognitive systems work and what are some of the industries already benefiting from cognitive systems? Stay tuned.